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Assess Napoleon’s Constitution and whether it upheld the ideals of the French Revolution. The Constitution established the House of Bonaparte as France’s imperial dynasty, making the throne hereditary in Napoleon’s family. In 1804, the Constitution of the Year XII established the First French Empire with Napoleon Bonaparte as Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. The Constitution of the Year XII was later extensively amended by the Additional Act (1815) after Napoleon returned from exile on Elba. After a short period of provisional government initially led by Gen. Charles de Gaulle (₩), the Fourth Republic was set up by a new constitution and established as a parliamentary form of government controlled by a series of coalitions. Napoleon played a key role in the French Revolution (1789–99), served as first consul of France (1799–1804), and was the first emperor of France (1804–14/15). Under the provisions of the constitution, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was automatically reelected to a fresh term as president. The Conservative Senate (Sénat conservateur) was a governmental body equal to the three aforementioned legislative assemblies. In 1825 Charles X sent an expedition to Haï… The First French Empire, officially the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire (French: Empire Français; Latin: Imperium Francicum), Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. His power was confirmed by the new Constitution of the Year VIII, which preserved the appearance of a republic but established a dictatorship. The Corps législatif, or Legislative Body (the same name had been used for the lower house of the French legislature during the French Consulate and First French Empire from 1799–1814), comprised 260 deputies (representatives) elected for 6 years by direct universal suffrage, but gerrymandering of the election districts ("circonscriptions") and the system of "official candidates" favored partisans of the president/emperor. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès—one of five Directors constituting the executive branch of the French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to overthrow the Constitution of the Year III. The Constitution of the Year VIII, adopted in 1799 and accepted by the popular vote in 1800, established the form of government known as the Consulate that presumed virtually dictatorial powers of the First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès – one of the five Directors who constituted the executive branch of the French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to overthrow the French Constitution of 1795. It was the main power of most of continental Europe during the early 19th century. The First French Empire (French: Empire Français), also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France. Napoleon and his allies overthrew the Directory by a coup d’état on November 9, 1799 (the Coup of 18 Brumaire), closing down the Council of Five Hundred. The executive power was vested in three Consuls, but all actual power was held by the First Consul, Bonaparte.Napoleon vetoed Sieyès’ original idea of having a single Grand Elector as supreme executive and Head of State. As a result of the spike in public violence and the political instability of the constitutional... Directory. Louis Napoléon was persuaded that democracy needed to be incarnated in a man, and the Constitution of 1851 was a return to the democratic Caesarism of his uncle Napoléon Bonaparte. By consolidating power, Bonaparte was able to transform the aristocratic constitution of Sieyès into a dictatorship. The term notables, commonly used under the monarchy, referred to prominent and more affluent men — landholders, merchants, scholars, professionals, clergymen, and officials. The French First Republic (fr. The French Senate was composed of from 80 to 150 members appointed for life by the president. The Constitution of the Year XII established the First French Empire. The same day, he had posters issued that proclaimed to the French people (Appel au peuple) his desire to restore the "system created by the First Consul" — his uncle and inspiration Napoleon Bonaparte. Louis Napoléon effectively brought an end to the Second French Republic by the coup d'état of 2 December 1851. It vested all the real power in the hands of the First Consul, leaving only a nominal role for the other two consuls. While this near-unanimity is certainly doubtful, Napoleon was genuinely popular among many voters and after a period of strife, many in France were reassured by his accomplishments in the War of  the Second Coalition and his talk of stability of government, order, justice, and moderation. The Constitution was amended twice and in each case, the amendments strengthened Napoleon’s already concentrated power. It referred directly to the French Revolution – saying that it "recognizes, confirms and guarantees the principles proclaimed in 1789" – and especially to the First French Empire. It was very liberal in spirit and gave the French people rights which were previously unknown to them, such as the right to elect the mayor in communes with populations fewer than 5,000. General organization of the First French Empire after the Atlas de l'Empire Napoléonien , by Jean-Luc Chappey and Bernard Gainot, Autrement editor, 2008 Everything has been arranged in the Constitution to let the executive authority as free as it can be. The Constitution of the Year X established a revised Consulate, with Napoleon as First Consul for Life. The First French Empire, officially the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Despite the failures in Egypt (1798-99), Napoleon arrived in France to a hero’s welcome. In 1852 Louis-Napoléon was proclaimed emperor, and the Second Empire was born. The First French Empire, also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France. The function of the Empire, as Emperor Napoleon III often repeated, was to guide the people internally towards justice and externally towards perpetual peace. The Second Empire was proclaimed on 2 December 1852 and the Imperial Constitution was enacted on 25 December 1852, without any significant change to the 14 January constitution. The First French Empire, also known as the Napoleonic Empire, French Empire, or simply France, was an empire that existed from 1802 to 1815, established under the Constitution of the Year XII. Napoleon I, also called Napoléon Bonaparte, was a French military general and statesman. The Constitution was amended twice and in each case, the amendments strengthened Napoleon’s already concentrated power. It was the main power of most of continental Europe during the early 19th century. While this near-unanimity is certainly doubtful, Napoleon was genuinely popular among many voters. It vested all of the real power in the hands of the First Consul, leaving only a nominal role for the other two consuls. Over 99% of voters approved the motion, according to the released results. Popular suffrage was retained but mutilated by the lists of notables. In 1804, the Constitution of the Year XII established the First French Empire with Napoleon Bonaparte I, Emperor of the French. The constitution tailor-made the position of First Consul to give Napoleon most of the powers of a dictator. The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (French: Empire Français; Latin: Imperium Francicum), was the empire ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1804, the Constitution of the Year XII established the First French Empire with Napoleon Bonaparte — previously First Consul for Life, with wide-ranging powers — as Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. The Constitution of the Year XII was the national constitution of France, adopted in 1804. The Conservative Senate (Sénat conservateur) was a governmental body equal to the three aforementioned legislative assemblies. Over time, various decrees and the "senatus-consulte" modified the constitution and progressively increased the power of the assemblies. At the close of the Napoleonic Wars, most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies, French Guiana on the coast of South America, various trading posts in Senegal, the Île Bourbon (Réunion) in the Indian Ocean, and France's tiny Indian possessions; though Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia, Tobago, the Seychelles, and the Isle de France (now Mauritius). The First French Empire, also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France. The people in each district chose a slate of notables by popular vote. However, the Senate was more of an executive body as it verified the draft bills and directly advised the First Consul on their implications. It was the first constitution since the Revolution that did not include a Declaration of Rights. The constitution replaced the Constitution of the Year VIII and the Constitution of the Year X, establishing the First French Empire with Napoleon Bonaparte as its hereditary emperor. He created the impression that France was governed once more by a real statesman and that a competent government was finally in charge. Holding his power by universal suffrage, and having frequently, from his prison or in exile, reproached previous oligarchical governments with neglec… Although the office of Holy Roman Emperor was elective, the House of Habsburghad held the title since 1440 (with one brief interruption) and Austria was the core of their territories. Under Article 4 of the constitution, he could initiate, sign or veto any legislation or senate decree ("senatus-consulte"). The constitution rejected the Ancien Régime and the post-revolutionary restoration monarchies with census suffrage. On 9 November 1799 (18 Brumaire, An VIII under the … Under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First... National Convention. It had the right to issue decrees, or senatus-consulte, to modify institutions and to verify the constitutionality of laws. He was assisted by the Council of State (Conseil d'État) which he controlled and presided, and whose job it was to write and support legislation. As enthusiastic contingents of volunteers left for the front, fear of counterrevolutionary plots gripped the capital. The Constitution of the Year VIII was adopted on December 24, 1799, and established the form of government known as the Consulate. However, Napoleon never intended to be part of an equal triumvirate. 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