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The English Civil War and Puritanism - Duration: 28:29. The main controversy based on which this war was fought was slavery. For example, in 1637 William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick were pilloried, whipped, mutilated by cropping and imprisoned indefinitely for publishing anti-episcopal pamphlets. He had observed his father’s arguments with Parliament naturally blamed the MPs. He was by no means an infallible leader, a fact that was glaringly obvious to both Parliament and the people of England. the parliament was trying to get more power than Charles 1 and take over the country. The English Civil War fought between Parliamentarians and Royalists between 1642 and 1651 which consisted of a succession of armed discordances and political intrigues1. The war stemmed from a long-standing weakness of the monarch and Charles I’s attempt to strengthen the figure head of a nation. Finally, Oliver Cromwell, the man who had fought so hard for the rights of Parliament, established a quasi-dictatorship in 1653. The re-introduction of stained glass windows and finery within churches was the last straw for many Puritans and Calvinists. ks3 history national curriculum 2014: the development of church, state and society in britain 1509-1745 the causes and events of the civil wars throughout britain James used his friends to run the country and rewarded them with titles. The English Civil War/Causes. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... To understand why Civil War erupted in England following decades of strong and powerful rule by the monarchy and why the "Supreme Head" of the land, the king himself was executed, we need to delve in to some background history first. First, civil war erupted and the country divided into opposing Royalist and Parliamentarian factions. This happened at a time when all of Europe was deciding (and fighting) between Catholicism and Protestantism, and neither side liked the other very mu… Causes of the English Civil War Russel Tarr. The Causes of the English Civil War were manifold: this article explores some of the key long term and short term causes. Yet how did it start? Terms of Use  |   The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. We therefore needed short-term rather than long-term explanations of the English civil war; revolution, they claimed, was the result, not the cause, of civil war.eRevisionists suggested that a much greater degree of ideological consensus existed in early Stuart He believed in the ‘Divine Right’ of being the King. Charles realised that his relationship with Parliament was now irrevocably broken. "The Causes of the English Civil War". He rode north to lead the battle himself, suffering a crushing defeat that left Newcastle upon Tyne and Durham occupied by Scottish forces. Being called upon to help King and country instilled a sense of purpose and power into this new Parliament. It was to be used to strengthen the Navy and so these counties would be protected by the money they paid in tax; in theory, it was a fair tax against which they could not argue. We English like to think of ourselves as gentlemen and ladies; a nation that knows how to queue, eat properly and converse politely. The conflict broke out during the end of the reign of Charles I in 1642 and concluded in 1649 with the execution of the king. Consequently, James suspended Parliament in 1911 and it would not meet for another 10 years. This support did not just come from the general tax paying population but also from the Puritanical forces within Protestant England. Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, October 10 from 4–5 PM PT By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. They were a collection of aristocrats who met at the King’s pleasure to offer advice and to help him collect taxes. The two sides in the English Civil war had been established. He was put on trial and found guilty, but he became a hero for standing up to the king. HistoryLearning.com. 5621230. The slide to war becomes more pronounced from this stage onwards. To prosecute those who opposed his reforms, Laud used the two most powerful courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber. By 1642 Charles I found himself nearly bankrupt, surrounded by blatant corruption and nepotism and desperate to hold onto the thin veil that masked his religious uncertainty. Another tactic Charles used was to make the country pay what is known as Ship Money. One hundred years earlier, all of England had been Catholic. (He didn’t take Firstly, England, and specifically Parliament, exhibited a rabid paranoia concerning Catholicism in the 17th century. Start studying Causes of the English Civil War LIVE. Charles’s decision to extend a year-round Ship Tax to all counties in England provided around £150,000 to £200,000 annually between 1634 and 1638.. Civil war was now on its way. The courts became feared for their censorship of opposing religious views and were unpopular among the propertied classes for inflicting degrading punishments on gentlemen. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. One of the biggest issues that led to the English Civil War involved the differences between Catholics and Protestants. Was it simply a power struggle between king and Parliament? The southern states were in favour of expanding the scope of slavery, while the northern states fought against it. The demands of Parliament were inimical to Charles, who believed strongly in the divine right of kings. Rise of the Middle Classes From 1642 to 1658, England descended into turmoil. The English Civil War from 1642 to 1651 was a period of social belligerence, religious disputes, political experimentation and instability in England, Scotland and Ireland. These issues were exacerbated by Charles’s mismanagement of the public coffers and through introducing new and ‘unfair’ taxes he simply added to the already growing anti-Crown sentiment up and down the country. Above: Parliament in the time of King Charles I. Charles’s personal rule reads like a ‘how to annoy your countrymen for dummies’. Parliament had no tangible power at this point in English history. But Charles did not only clash with Parliament; his relationship with the Scots was also turbulent, particularly when he ordered that a new prayer book should be used within their church services, which in turn prompted the angry to Scots to invade England in 1639. He subscribed to the doctrine of the "divine right of kings", which was the belief that God select kings as and God could do no wrong, neither a king - this made James believe he was unanswerable to Parliament. Although the marriage never actually went ahead, the damage it had done had still not healed by the times of James’s death in 1625. The Earl of Strafford - "Black Tom Tyrant" -  was one of Charles I’s top advisors. The Causes of the English Civil War were manifold: this article explores some of the key long term and short term causes. These events were completely unprecedented and unexpected. Copyright © Historic UK Ltd. Company Registered in England No. His bullish response in barging into the House of Commons and attempting to arrest five MPs lost him the last remnants of support among undecided MPs. After the conclusion of the humiliating Treaty of Ripon that let the Scots remain in Newcastle and Durham whilst being paid £850 a day for the privilege, Charles summoned Parliament. She heard Roman Catholic mass every day in her own private chapel and frequently took her children, the heirs to the English throne, to mass. In 1642, Charles arrived in Westminster with 300 soldiers and attempted to arrest five of his most virulent critics. A full list of the Kings and Queens of England and Britain, with portraits and photos. As a result, the E… His lack of funds meant that in 1640 Charles had no choice but to recall Parliament. In return for their help, Parliament made several demands: Laud and Strafford would be removed as advisors and put on trial. Through the study of money, religion and power at this time it is clear that one factor is woven through them all and must be noted as a major cause of the English Civil War; that is the attitude and ineptitude of Charles I himself, perhaps the antithesis of an infallible monarch. • Charles took the result of Hampden (Ship Money) Case as evidence that he was right in what he was doing. that his power came from God, so he was answerable only to God. This sparked outrage in Parliament as they feared that Charles’s children would be raised as Catholics. Surely if you have been given power to rule by God, you should demonstrate an ability to wield this responsibility with a degree of success? In times of financial difficulty that meant the King had to listen to Parliament. Ruling without Parliament was not unprecedented but without access to Parliament’s financial pulling power, Charles’s ability to acquire funds was limited. Possible, culminating in an interest in the causes of the tide of english society, hunger, famine, religion, 1629–42. Charles became King in 1625. However, the balance of power had begun to shift. These two points demonstrate the fact that Charles believed in his Divine Right, a right to rule unchallenged. The English Civil War: Causes Of The English Civil War 1266 Words | 6 Pages. As a result, the two sides clashed with regards to custom duties, which provided the king was a regular income, but Parliament stated that he could not collect it without them granting him their permission. While outwardly a Protestant, Charles I was married to a staunch Catholic, Henrietta Maria of France. Under Charles I’s father James I the role of monarchy had begun to decline. Someone close to the king tipped off Parliament and the men fled before Charles arrived. Charles’s continued support for these types of policies continued to pile on support for those that were looking to put a limit on his power. A quick but dense overview of what led up to the English Civil War(s) beginning in 1642. Understandably enough, in seeking the causes of the English civil war most historians have focussed on England and Wales, but the wider context has never been entirely ignored. Again Charles was left the problem of having to raise funds, and to do so rich men were persuaded to buy titles. The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. Pitting brother against brother and father against son, the English civil war is a blot on our history. The English Civil War was a highly complex conflict, one which cannot be pinned on one cause alone. Parliament wasted no time arresting and putting on trial the Kings closest advisers, including Archbishop Laud and Lord Strafford. In 1621, Parliament was recalled as James wished to discuss the future marriage between his son, Charles, and a Spanish princess. The English civil war broke out on 22nd August 1642. At the start of his reign (1625) King Charles I had married the Roman Catholic Henrietta Maria of France. Why had England become so chaotic? Included in her marriage treaty were provisions that she be allowed to practice her religion freely at Court. Indeed, there was barely an English ‘gentleman’ who was not touched by the war. The Long-Term Causes of the English Civil War • Believed in the divine right of kings – i.e. Slavery – not happy the royalist cause, so as well as a war. John Hampden, a powerful MP, famously refused to pay the new tax because Parliament had not agreed to it. For the Royalists, the nickname is fairly simple in origin. It caused many deaths and divided some families. The English civil war was a long chain of conflict and rivalry, which was set between two very powerful forces, who consisted of The Royalists (King Charles I, and his supporters), and the Roundheads (Parliament, and their supporters). governed by an uneasy alliance between the monarchy and parliament English Protestants were constantly fearful of Catholicism being foisted upon the English, whether through foreign invasion or internal rebellion. This made many MPs angry. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing … Money had also been an issue from the outset, especially as the royal coffers had been emptied during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. However, Parliament’s great power over James was money - they had it and he needed it. They were locked out for 11 years: this period was named the Personal Rule, or the Eleven Years Tyranny. 2015. As a result, the two sides clashed with regards to. The causes of the English civil war could be because of the 19 propostions. Causes of the Civil War Essay: The infamous American civil war was fought between the years 1861 to 1865, between the more developed North American states and the lesser developed South American states. Were the festering wounds left by the Tudor religious roller coaster to blame? Daniël Mijtens, Charles I, 1625; Long term causes: Under Charles I’s father James I the role of monarchy had begun to decline. This alone gave them some influence, as the king needed their seal of approval to legitimately set taxes in motion. civil war England Europe history . the english civil war. However, Charles I had now shown his true side. Charles would agree that Parliament could never be dismissed without Parliament’s assent. Causes of The English Civil War In this assessment I will be analysing the many causes and roots of the English Civil war which broke out in 1642. Between the years 1625 and 1629, Charles and Parliament clashed over money and religion. The year 2011 marked the 350th anniversary of the execution of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England - two and half years AFTER his death.. That is not to say it was inevitable, or that the subsequent removal and execution of Charles I was even a notion in the heads of those who opposed him. By 1642, relations between Parliament and Charles had further deteriorated. Religion was a major cause of the English Civil War. Under this definition any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict the powers of the monarch goes against the will of God. MPs represented the people, and yet here was Charles attempting to arrest five MPs simply for daring to criticise him. Through the study of money, religion and power at this time it is clear that one factor is woven through them all and must be noted as a major cause of the English Civil War; that is the attitude and ineptitude of Charles I himself, perhaps the antithesis of an infallible monarch. England had managed to escape the Reformation relatively unscathed, avoiding much of the heavy fighting that raged in Europe as Catholic and Protestant forces battled in The Thirty Year War. Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in 1642, would have ended with the public execution of Charles. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. As Charles’ forces were largely … Coupled with his desire to extend his high Anglican (read here thinly disguised Catholic) policies and practices to Scotland, Charles I needed the financial support of Parliament. Web. James was often labelled as the "wisest fool in Christendom". The English Civil War was a conflict between the Parliament and Charles I. His introduction of a permanent Ship Tax was the most offensive policy to many. Over the next year Parliament began to introduce increased emboldened demands, and by June 1642 these were too much for Charles to bear. Nicknames. 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