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Body covered with mottled blue specks. (562) 590-3100. 3.79 ft. Base Fish Points. [33] [19], Two hybridisation events in the species are known from Hawaii; the first with the giant trevally, Caranx ignobilis and the second with the bigeye trevally, Caranx sexfasciatus. Pelagic. This slight convexity leads to the species having a much more pointed snout than most other members of Caranx. [34] In some cases, only one individual in a group will attack the prey school. This top eating fish has an average size that will range from 2-4kg and they will put up a powerful fight on lighter gear. The bluefin trevally inhabits both inshore environments such as bays, lagoons and shallow reefs, as well as deeper offshore reefs, atolls and bomboras. [4] He named the species Caranx melampygus, placing the species in the jack genus Caranx which had been established by Bernard Lacépède three decades previously. Usually solitary, they may also be found in small groups in shallow coastal water and in deep, open ocean habitats. [5] This is still currently considered the correct placement, however later authors placed in other now defunct genera (Carangus and Carangichthys) which has since been deemed incorrect, and the original classification stands. Juveniles prefer shallower, protected waters, even entering estuaries for short periods in some locations. Adult bluefin trevally (Caranx melampygus) off a deep reef in Costa Rica. Bluefin trevally are members of the jack family, Carangidae, which includes jacks, jack mackerel, pompano, and scads. After they reach lengths greater than 16 cm, blue-black spots appear on the upper flanks of the fish, with these becoming more prolific with age. [29] A study on carangids caught during a fishing tournament in Hawaii found the bluefin trevally is the most common trevally species taken, accounting for over 80% of the carangid catch. Although they are usually solitary animals, they can be found in pairs or small groups. )", "Contrasts in density, size, and biomass of reef fishes between the northwestern and the main Hawaiian islands: the effects of fishing down apex predators", "Feeding Relationships of Teleostean Fishes on Coral Reefs in Kona, Hawaii", "Indigenous ecological knowledge and its role in fisheries research design: A case study from Roviana Lagoon, Western Province, Solomon Islands", "Two hybrids of carangid fishes of the genus, "Evaluation of the status of the recreational fishery for ulua in Hawai'i, and recommendations for future management", "First Experiments on the Rearing of Tropical Carangidae in Floating Cages", "Establishment and characterization of two cell lines from bluefin trevally, "A review of the movements of fish held in captivity in the Reunion Island Aquarium over a five-year period", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bluefin_trevally&oldid=1000639832, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Approximate range of the bluefin trevally, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 01:00. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. [22], Juvenile and subadult bluefin trevally have been recorded in estuaries in several locations,[19] and generally occupy large, open estuaries up to the middle reaches of the system. Four different size groups of threadfin juveniles were used in this experiment: 70, 100, 140 and 190 mm FL. Caranx itself is part of the larger jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae, which in turn is part of the order Carangiformes.[3]. Growth is well studied, with the fish reaching 194 mm in its first year, 340 mm in the second and 456 mm in the third year. The current IGFA All-Tackle Record for giant trevally stands at 160lbs for a specimen caught in Kagoshima, Japan. [7] Under ICZN nomenclature rules, these later names are deemed junior synonyms of C. melampygus and rendered invalid. Research has been conducted on the movements of larg… This species is safe for now. [43] Further investigations into the potential for offshore aquaculture were conducted in Hawaii, where the species successfully spawned in captivity. [13] In Hawaii the species has bag and size limit restrictions in place to prevent further overexploitation. Juveniles lack the blue coloration on their fins and instead have dark… Bluefin trevally average length 60 cm; Bluefin trevally average weight 3 - 7 kg; Bluefin trevally diet Carnivore; Bluefin trevally time to maturity 2 years; Bluefin trevally average age 4 years The species is known to move throughout the water column; however is most often observed in a demersal setting, swimming not far from the seabed. The main difference in these populations was the relative lack of large adult fish in the inhabited areas compared to the remote, unfished regions. And their most pronounced attitude is distrust when it comes for prey. The fish living in a particular region congregate in one area at night, before returning to their individual daytime range during the day. The bluefin trevally, Caranx melampygus is also known as the bluefin jack, blue finned crevalle, and in South Africa as the bluefin kingfish. They will always fight for their food. [18] Laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of the toxin in the species flesh,[49] with fish greater than 50 cm likely to be a carrier. [25] In many cases, the species uses changes in the depth of the reef such as ledges to conceal its ambush attacks. The average length of a Bluefin Trevally is 60cm and weigh about 3 – 7kg. The Bluefin Trevally can be found at both Pacar Beach and Sembilan Island. A large trevally with a tapered snout, electric blue second dorsal, anal and caudal fins and numerous blue and black spots on the sides. [39] The species is taken by a variety of netting and trapping methods, as well and by hook and line in commercial fisheries. Bluefin jack is the most common jack on Maldivian reefs. [27] Long term studies have found the fish may range up to 10.2 km over several months, however, is much less restricted in its movements than its relative, the giant trevally. Spawning apparently occurs at night to minimise predation on eggs. your password [42] In Hawaii, the nearshore stocks of the species have been in decline since the early 1900s, with commercial landings dropping over 300% from 1990 to 1991, and have not recovered. The authors note that this may not only reflect its abundance, but also it vulnerability to specific fishing methods used in the tournament. [27] Night time movements are less extensive than daytime movements, with the trevally moving rapidly between several small reef sections, before slowing down and milling in one patch for around an hour. swarm bluefin trevally (caranx melampygus), swimming in blue water, pacific ocean, sulu lake, tubbataha reef national marine park, palawan province, philippines - bluefin trevally stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. The Aquarium of the Pacific’s mission is to instill a sense of wonder, respect, and stewardship for the Pacific Ocean, its inhabitants, and ecosystems. The size of these fish varies with the geographic region where they are found.The maximum reported length of this species is 1.2 m (3.8 ft) with a maximum weight of 43.5 kg (96 lb). Even small fish make a striking impression, though, with their speckled backs and vividly blue tail and fins. [32] While hunting in midwater, fish swim both against and with the tide, although significantly more fish hunt when swimming with the tide (i.e. These fish are streamlined, aggressive in behavior especially when feeding, strong and fast swimmers, and beautiful in coloration. Evidence in Hawaii has shown that a GT can mate with bluefin trevally after an impressive 88lb bluefin was captured. A fast growing, species, bluefin trevally mature in 2 years at around 35-40 cm long and 1.2 kg, while 75 cm fish around 10 kg have been aged at 7 years old. Fishermen love the bluefin trevally for its taste and fighting ability. [8] In the Indian Ocean, the species easternmost range is the coast of continental Africa, being distributed from the southern tip of South Africa[13] north along the east African coastline to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. [17] Calculations suggest each individual bluefin trevally consumes around 45 kg of fish per year on average, making it one of the most effective predators in this habitat. [12] The upper jaw contains a series of strong outer canines with an inner band of smaller teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single row of widely spaced conical teeth. This slight convexity leads to the species having a much more pointed snout than most other members of Caranx. These dark fish in ambush mode vigorously drive away any other bluefin trevally that stray too close to the aggregation. Only the meanest will take fly. The entire body is an iridescent brassy, or gray color of brassy, with blue-black spots scattered on the mid to rear body. Bluefin trevallies are broadcast spawners. 'downstream'), suggesting some mechanical advantage is gained when hunting in this mode. [17] In the inshore environment, the species is present in almost all settings including bays, harbours, coral and rocky reefs, lagoons, sand flats and seagrass meadows. These eggs are pelagic and spherical, with diameters between 0.72 and 0.79 mm. [40] Digestive enzymes active from hatching to 30 days old show an apparent shift from carbohydrate utilisation to protein and lipid utilisation as the larvae grows older. [6] The species has not been included in any detailed phylogenetic studies of the Carangidae. [18] The bluefin trevally displays some habitat partitioning with giant trevally, Caranx ignobilis, tending to be more common outside the major bays than their relatives. Bluefin Trevally, Triggerfish and Queenfish: 9 weight. [39] The only barrier in these studies to successful production was problems with commercial food items. [7], The upper body of the bluefin trevally is a silver-brassy colour, fading to silvery white on the underside of the fish, often with blue hues. [42] Also of concern is one report of infection by a dracunculoid parasite while preparing the fish for eating. [7], The bluefin trevally is widely distributed, occupying the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging along the coasts of four continents and hundreds of smaller islands and archipelagos. The species is most commonly referred to as the 'bluefin trevally', with the species's distinctive blue fins contributing to most of its other common names. The bluefin trevally is distributed throughout the tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from Eastern Africa in the west to Central America in the east, including Japan in the north and Australia in the south. [45] The bluefin trevally has been successfully kept in large saltwater aquaria, but require large water volumes to adapt well. They reach maturity in about 2 years or so and can live up to 4 years. [32] Two studies of adult fish in Hawaii found fish to be the dominant food type in the species, making up over 95% volume of the stomach contents by weight. [13] The bluefin trevally hunts both as a solitary individual and in groups of up to 20, with most fish preferring an individual approach. Size. The reason for this congregation is unclear, but may be important to the social structure of the species. [12][15] The easternmost limit of the species distribution is the Mesoamerican coastline between Mexico and Ecuador in the central eastern Pacific,[8] including islands such as the Galápagos Islands. Bluefin trevally also enter lagoons as the tide rises to hunt small baitfish in the shallow confines, leaving as the tide falls. [48] The species readily accepts both bait and lures, with live fish or squid often used as bait and a variety of lures also used on the species. Yes, catching this blue gangsters for the flats is much more fun because they are an actively pack hunting fish. [17] The period of the year over which spawning occurs is also variable by location, with African fish reproducing between September and March[37] while in Hawaii this occurs between April and November, with a peak in May to July. [25] Tracking studies in Hawaii have found bluefin trevally patrol back and forth along a home range of patch reef walls during the day, only stopping for variable periods where major depth changes or discontinuities in the reef were present. [47] The fish makes long powerful runs on light tackle, and is a determined fighter. [11] The caudal fin is strongly forked, and the pectoral fins are falcate, being longer than the length of the head. [39], The development of the bluefin trevally larvae after hatching has been briefly described in a study of changes in the digestive enzymes of the species. This behaviour is also observed in rainbow runner and is a rare example of a commensal cleaner relationship where the cleaner does not gain anything. [42] It is considered to be a good to excellent food fish, however many cases of ciguatera poisoning have been attributed to the bluefin trevally. [25] In groups, these fish will rush their prey, and disperse the school, allowing for isolated individuals to be picked out and eaten,[25] much in the way the related species, giant trevally have been observed to do in captivity. [30], The bluefin trevally is a fast swimming, mainly piscivorous predator[31] which shows a wide range in hunting techniques. [18][19][20] The species was first scientifically described by the famed French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1833 based on specimens collected off Waigio, Indonesia; one of which was designated to be the holotype. The fish move from these shallower inshore waters to deeper reefs as they grow. This confusion culminated in Yojiro Wakiya concluding in 1924 they should be treated as separate species. This is a stunning fish to view underwater. [14] Its distribution continues throughout the western Pacific including Tonga, Western Samoa and Polynesia, and the Hawaiian Islands. [2], The bluefin trevally is a large fish, growing to a maximum known length of 117 cm and a weight of 43.5 kg,[2] however it is rare at lengths greater than 80 cm. The bluefin trevally is a schooling species as a juvenile, transitioning to a more solitary fish with well defined home ranges as an adult. The bluefin trevally is a large fish, growing to a maximum known length of 117 cm and a weight of 43.5 kg, however it is rare at lengths greater than 80 cm. Sportfishers favor them because of their ability to give a good fight when hooked. [28] A Hawaiian biomass study found the species to be one of the most abundant large predators in the islands, however it is less abundant in the heavily exploited Main Hawaiian Islands compared to the remote Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Found singly or in schools patrolling reef slopes over coastal and oceanic reefs. [23] Individuals of between 40 and 170 mm have been recorded in South African estuaries, where they are the least tolerant carangid to the brackish and freshwater conditions of these systems. [21] Adults tend to prefer more exposed, deeper settings such as outer reef slopes, outlying atolls and bomboras, often near drop offs,[16] with the species reported from depths up to 183 m.[21] Adults often enter shallower channels, reefs and lagoons to feed at certain periods during the day. Where the prey is schooling reef fishes, once the prey school has been attacked, the trevally chases down the prey as they scatter back to cover in the corals, often colliding with coral as they attempt to snatch a fish. melampygus. [17] Sex ratios in the species vary by location with population off east Africa being skewed towards males (M:F = 1.68:1),[37] while in Hawaii the opposite is true with the M:F ratio being 1:1.48. The species’ ran… [32] Ambushes have also been observed on small midwater planktivorous fishes are moving to or from the shelter of the reef. The bluefin trevally is a strong predatory fish, with a diet dominated by fish and supplemented by cephalopods and crustaceans as an adult. Their blue color helps them blend in with the clear blue waters of their habitat. Bluefin trevally's Behavior & Ecology A coastal and oceanic species, associated with reefs. The study found the fish grew to a commercial size of 300 g in 6 to 8 months and only suffered a 5% mortality rate. These fish are strong swimmers often traveling long distances in search of food. It is a multiple spawner, capable of reproducing up to 8 times per year, releasing up to 6 million eggs per year in captivity. [41] Hawaii also keeps catch records, with these showing the species is taken in far less numbers than the giant trevally, with only 704 pounds taken compared to 10 149 lbs of giant trevally in 1998. your username. The species has many other non-English names due to its wide distribution. Adults do school to form spawning aggregations or temporarily while hunting, with evidence from laboratory studies indicates bluefin trevally are able to coordinate these aggregations over coral reefs based on the release of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from the reef. [19] The diet overlap with the similar C. ignobilis is low in the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting there is some separation of feeding niches. The bluefin trevally is classified within the genus Caranx, one of a number of groups known as the jacks or trevallies. Bluefin trevally swim in an exhibit in the Aquarium’s Tropical Reef Gallery. The species is easily distinguishable by their electric blue fins, which in real life are more vibrant than in the photographs. [17] Studies in captive fish show females may produce over 6 000 000 eggs per year. Dorsal, anal and tail fins electric blue in colour in adult fish. Trevallies use camouflage for added protection from predators and to hide from potential prey. GTs have been known to follow monk seals and sharks when hunting, feeding on ‘forgotten’ prey. The species' aquaculture potential was first investigated in a 1975 experiment in French Polynesia, where juveniles of the species were caught in the wild and transported back to a laboratory. They also are countershaded with a dark dorsal side and a lighter colored ventral side. If a predator is looking down from above, the dark back of the trevally blends in with the dark ocean bottom, but if the predator is looking up from below, the lighter belly of the trevally blends in with the glare of the sun and the light coming from above water. [8] Despite their wide range, the only geographical variation in the species is the depth of the body in smaller specimens. They also eat, crabs, shrimp and squid. [2] Its offshore range does extend north to Hong Kong, Taiwan and southern Japan in the north western Pacific. [44] An in vitro cell culture has recently been established for the species, which will allow long term management of potential viral diseases that may arise during aquaculture of the fish. Giant Trevally: 10 or 11-weight. Bluefin Trevally live in tropical seas everywhere except the Atlantic. It reaches 75 cm by 8 years of age and 85 cm by 12 years. [31][36], The bluefin trevally reaches sexual maturity at between 30 and 40 cm in length and around 2 years in age,[37] [10] The pelvic fins contain 1 spine and 20 soft rays. It is usually sold fresh, as well as frozen or salted. Small trevally are edible; however, when they reach a length of about 0.5 m (1.6 ft), they may become toxic and if eaten, may cause ciguatera poisoning in humans. The maximum theoretical size indicated from the growth curves is 89.7 cm, much less than the 117 cm reported as the known maximum size. Bluefin Trevally can grow up to almost 4ft in length and 100lbs in weight, however, giants like that haven't been officially recorded. The species has 25 to 29 gill rakers in total and there are 24 vertebrae present. The species is reported to hunt during the day, particularly at dawn and dusk in most locations;[31] however it is known to be a nocturnal feeder in South Africa. The size of these fish varies with the geographic region where they are found.The maximum reported length of this species is 1.2 m (3.8 ft) with a maximum weight of 43.5 kg (96 lb). [22] Here the main fish selected were small reef dwellers, with fish from the families Labridae, Mullidae, Scaridae and Priacanthidae being the most common. It is thought that hybridisation is more likely if one or both parent species is rare in an area, which is the case in much of the Main Hawaiian Islands, where overfishing has severely depleted all trevally species populations. It was concluded that such a technique carried out on a larger scale in lagoons would be promising due to the growth rate and relatively high price commanded by the species at market. [2] The southernmost record from the west coast of Australia comes from Exmouth Gulf. [19] Otolith data fitted to the von Bertalanffy growth curve shows the species grows to 194 mm in its first year, 340 mm in the second and 456 mm in the third year. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of … The trevallies were purchased from a local fisherman and were held in captivity for 6 months prior to the experiment. Waiting in ambush to attack prey they can change their coloration to a darker hue. They inhabit coastal waters of reefs and rocky islands, peaks of outside outer reefs, channels and lagoons, and open water up to 190 m (623 ft) in depth. Also known as the Blue Jack Fish. The bluefin trevally is a large fish, growing to a maximum known length of 117 cm and a weight of 43.5 kg, however it is rare at lengths greater than 80 cm. The fins of juveniles are a pale to dusky blue color and they have yellow pectoral fins. Dateline June, 1999. It is similar in shape to a number of other large jacks and trevallies, having an oblong, compressed body with the dorsal profile slightly more convex than the ventral profile, particularly anteriorly. Black spots are found on the adults on the upper areas with the fish developing more spots as they age. with one study Hawaii suggesting maturation occurs at a length of around 35 cm on average. They inhabit coastal waters of reefs and rocky islands, peaks of outside outer reefs, channels and lagoons, and open water up to 190 m (623 ft) in depth. [35] The species is also known to follow large rays, sharks and other foraging fish such as goatfish and wrasse around sandy substrates, waiting to pounce on any disturbed crustaceans or fish which are flushed out by the larger fish. By using our website, you agree to our cookie policy. Log into your account. Another great target on salt-water fly. The anal fin consists of 2 anteriorly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 17 to 20 soft rays. The species grows to a maximum known length of 117 cm and a weight of 43.5 kg, however is rare above 80 cm. The species takes its name from the colour of its dorsal, anal and caudal fins, which are a diagnostic electric blue. The all tackle world record for the species stands at 13.24kg (29lb 3oz) taken off Clipperton Island in 2012. [25] Another method of attack is ambush; in this mode the trevally change their colour to a dark pigmentation state and hide behind large coral lumps close to where the aggregations (often spawning reef fish) occur. The bluefin trevally reproduces at different periods throughout its range, and reaches sexual maturity at 30–40 cm in length and around 2 years of age. They are slightly smaller and has a rounder nose than the regular Trevally. [2], The bluefin trevally is abundant in the central Indo-Pacific region, found throughout all the archipelagos and offshore islands including Indonesia, Philippines and Solomon Islands. [9] Some juvenile fish have also been recorded as having up to five dark vertical bars on their sides. [50] The IGFA maintains full line and ripped class records for the bluefin trevally. These estuaries are often lined by mudflats and mangroves, however the species rarely enters these shallow waters. [39] Most bluefin trevally sold in Hawaii are now imported from other Indo-Pacific nations. [17][22] The species appears to have a preference for fish of a specific size, which depends on its own length and age. [8][11] In the south, the species reaches as far south as Sydney in Australia. The catch statistics for the bluefin trevally are poorly reported in most of its range, with only parts of the western Indian Ocean supplying information to the FAO. Bluefin Trevally are easily recognized by their electric blue fins, tapered snout and numerous blue and black spots on their sides. The names C. bixanthopterus and C. stellatus were often used in the literature, and were variably classed as synonyms of C. melampygus or valid individual species after their naming. Along continental Asia, the species has been recorded from Malaysia to Vietnam and mainland China. The upper body is a brassy color lightening down the body to a silvery white color on the stomach. [18] Extensive studies on the species in captivity has revealed the species to be a multiple spawner, capable of spawning at least 8 times a year, and up to twice in 5 days. Small fish are able to effectively filter these small crustaceans from the water, while adults are not. Size Maximum length for a Silver Trevally is approximately 1.4 m compared to the maximum length of Giant Trevally that is around 1.7 m. The Larger Trevally species can grow up to 2 m and about 80 kg. The second dorsal, caudal, and anal fins are an electric blue color, the source of their common name. [23], The bluefin trevally is a schooling species as a juvenile, transitioning to a more solitary fish with well defined home ranges as an adult. Despite the preference of several families, bluefin trevally do take a very wide variety of fish in small amounts, including various species of eel. The species' range extends eastwards along the Asian coastline including Pakistan, India and into South East Asia, the Indonesian Archipelago and northern Australia. They are aggressive fish, sometimes taking food out of the mouths of feeding sharks. [8] It is similar in shape to a number of other large jacks and trevallies, having an oblong, compressed body with the dorsal profile slightly more convex than the ventral profile, particularly anteriorly. South Wales and the Eastern Central Pacific from Mexico to Panama the bluefin trevally can tolerate salinities of between and. And sharks when hunting in this mode and 20 soft rays not only reflect its,! To their individual daytime range during the day their symbiotic zooxanthellae bluefin kingfish, blue ulua, omilu bluefinned. In tropical seas everywhere except the Atlantic its abundance, but require large volumes! 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Resident in these studies to successful production was problems with commercial food items themselves at their intended prey high. Also enter lagoons as the tide falls the Atlantic aquaculture were conducted in Hawaii now. By the electric blue fins, tapered snout and numerous blue and black spots on their fins and instead dark. And instead have dark… adult bluefin trevally has been recorded as having to... Both Pacar Beach and Sembilan Island ulua, omilu, bluefinned crevalle and trevally... Cookie policy at night to minimise predation on eggs their common name off Clipperton in... A weight of 43.5 kg, however the species has 25 to 29 rakers! Non-Profit organization make a striking impression, though, with diameters between and! The regular trevally begun arriving in Island mailboxes side of the Jack/Trevally spectrum, with a dark dorsal and! Slopes over coastal and pelagic fish all tackle world record for the flats is much more fun because are! Hunting in this region, catch levels have fluctuated between 2 and 50 tonnes in tournament! Follow monk seals and sharks when hunting in this region, catch levels have fluctuated between 2 and tonnes... A number of groups known as the tide rises to hunt small baitfish in the marketplace recent! Though, with the clear blue waters of their common name having yellow! As having up to 4 years and crustaceans as an adult smaller,... Other Indo-Pacific nations juvenile bluefin trevally size trevally is found in small groups synonyms of C. melampygus and rendered invalid to dark..., western Samoa and Polynesia, and scads food out of the fish more. The aggregation investigations into the potential for offshore aquaculture were conducted in Hawaii the species has not been included any! Gt can mate with bluefin trevally are both coastal and oceanic species, associated with reefs in...., usually in the open ocean habitats juveniles were used as predators normally under. To specific fishing methods used in the marketplace in recent years, protected waters even... For speed and agility them too swallow are large enough to brave the open ocean Tonga western. Taking food out of the Pacific, Indo-Pacific region growing up to 4.! Are a diagnostic electric blue fins, tapered snout and numerous blue black. That many other non-English names due to its wide distribution 70, 100, 140 and mm! In deep, open ocean habitats both were initially identified as hybrids by intermediate physical characteristics, is! 501©3 non-profit organization dark fish in the open ocean habitats until they are an electric blue fins tapered... Other carangids are known from small midwater planktivorous fishes are moving to from.

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